MATERI UJIAN: BAHASA INGGRIS
WAKTU: 90 MENIT
This section is designed to measure your ability to recognize language that is appropriate for standard
written English. There are two types of questions in this section, with special directions for each type.
Directions: Questions 1-15 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence you will see four words or
phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the
letter of the answer you have chosen. Fill in the space so that the letter inside the oval cannot be seen.
……are found in virtually every country in the world.
(A) Swamps and marshes which
(B) When swamps and marshes
(C) Swamps and marshes
(D) Now that swamps and marshes
The sentence should read, “Swamps and marshes are found in virtually every country in the world.”
Therefore, you should choose answer (C).
Milk is pasteurized by heating it for thirty minutes
at about 63° Centigrade, rapidly cooling it, and then
……it at a temperature below 10° Centigrade.
(A) to store
(C) be stored
The sentence should read, “Milk is pasteurized by heating it for thirty minutes at about 63° Centigrade,
rapidly cooling it, and then storing it at a temperature below 10° Centigrade.” Therefore, you should
choose answer (D).
Now begin work on the questions.
A B C D
A B C D
1. A special computerized camera, called the
Dykstraflex, ______ to create the illusion of
movement of the spaceships in the film Star
(B) its design
(C) was designed
(D) with its design
2. Studies have shown that drug interactions may
create serious problems, with effects ______
from high blood pressure to sudden cardiac
(A) it ranges
(B) may range
(C) the range
3. ______ was once Poland’s most respected
playwright, but he remained relatively unknown
(A) The fact that Tadeus Micinski
(B) TadeusMicinski, who
(C) Although TadeusMicinski
4. The Neanderthals are best known for their skill
inmaking stone tools, which ______many kinds
of scrapers and pointed implements.
(C) are included
5. ______ children are so immersed in computer
games that they are oblivious to their surroundings.
(B) Most of
(D) Themost of
6. Research on autism has predominantly focused
on children, ______ research projects devoted to
low-functioning adult autistics are exceedingly low.
7. Many studies reveal that themore friends and
relatives people have, ______.
(A) longer life they have
(B) then they live longer
(C) the longer they live
(D) they live a longer life
8. Hemaglobin is the part of the red cells that captures
oxygen in the lungs and ______ to the body
(A) its delivery
(B) delivering it
(C) delivers it
(D) to deliver
9. As a tropical archipelago, Indonesia became famous
for her flora and fauna, ______ are still being
(B) many of which
(C) many of them
(D) that many
10. Invented in 1595, the backstaff was a device that
enabled seafarers to determine ______.
(A) what was the distance to the north of
(B) so far north were they from the equator
(C) when they were far north of the equator
(D) how far north they were from the equator
11. Not only ______ master the skill to collaborate
with lawyers from other jurisdictions, but they
also have a good understanding of global legal
(A) international lawyers, they
(B) do international lawyers
(C) are international lawyers
(D) international lawyers
12. Depriving children of access to good health care
and nutrition during their early childhood ______
of learning difficulties and diseases later in their
(A) increases the likelihood
(B) to increase the likelihood
(C) the likelihood increased
(D) increasing the likelihood
13. Uncle Tom’s Cabin, ______, was instrumental in
the abolition of slavery in the United States.
(A) was written by Harriet B. Stowe
(B) the book written by Harriet B. Stowe
(C) Harriet B. Stowe wrote the book
(D) it was written by Harriet B. Stowe
14. Survey sampling is a widely accepted method
for providing statistical data ______ a research
(A) though doing
(B) how to do
(C) when doing
(D) to do it in
15. With eyes moving independently of each other,
______ and predatorsmore easily.
(A) seahorses’ ability to spot potential food
(B) spotting potential food by seahorses
(C) seahorses are able to spot potential food
(D) the potential ability of seahorses to spot food
16. The early 1980s, El Nino caused greater than average precipitation along the west coast of NorthAmerica.
17. The zebra has excellent hearing and a good sense of smelling, but lacks sharp eyesight.
18. Lanoxin, used for the treatment of heart failure, may cause irregular heart rhythm if it is using in
19. One new strategy for to control malaria is using pesticides-treated bed nets which protect people
20. Beagles have better scent receptors than other dogs, and show no aggressive toward people.
21. Brazil hit the energy jackpot when Petrobars, the state energy company, struck oil in giant fields deep
below the floor of Atlantic Ocean.
Directions: In questions 16-40 each sentence has four underlined words or phrases. The four underlined
parts of the sentence aremarked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must
be changed in order for the sentence to be grammatically correct. Then, on your answer sheet, find the
number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.
Meadowlarks are about the same size than robins.
but they have heavier bodies, shorter tails, and
The sentence should read. “Meadowlarks are about the same size as robins, but they have heavier
bodies, shorter tails, and longer bills.” Therefore, you should choose answer (B).
When overall exports exceed imports, a country said
to have a trade surplus.
The sentence should read, “When overall exports exceed imports, a country is said to have a trade
surplus.” Therefore, you should choose answer (C).
Now begin work on the questions.
A B C
A B C D
A B C D
A B C D
A B C D
A B C D
A B C
A B C D
A B C
22. It takes time and education to eliminate prejudice in striving to implementing equal rights for women.
23. The report reveals that the entire U.S. seaweed harvest come from the coastal waters off South California.
24. It was not until 3000 years ago when seafarers traveling on the oceans used compasses to navigate
their wooden ships
25. Buildings account for about forty percent of our energy consumption; therefore, the effort increased
energy efficiency is of primary importance.
26. The owners of the French soft drink company Orangina is said to be near an agreement to sell the
company to Suntory of Japan.
27. The goal of fusion phycisist is to use the heat from a fusing plasma to keep the reaction going
indefinitely without the need to pump in external energy.
28. Themagnitude of the earthquake inWest Sumatra was such severe that three villages were deeply
buried after deadly landslides came crashing down on them.
29. A 32-year-old Germanmeteorologist by the name of Alfred L.Wegener contended that all the present
continents used to form one supercontinent called as Pangaea.
30. Between the late fifteenth and early seventeenth centuries, explorers paid by trading companies to
create new trade routes and find new countries in the world.
31. Some ancient fern-like plants covering the landmillions of years ago were as large like trees with
giant fronds at the top of straight trunks.
32. Often the size and weigh of a small truck, satellites take years to be built and launched at a cost that
can exceed $10 billion.
33. The balmy climate and beauty of Corfu, one of the Greek islands, havemade them a popular place
for tourists around the world to spend their vacation.
A B C D
A B C D
A B C
A B C
A B C
A B C
A B C
A B C
THIS IS THE END OF SECTION 1
34. Despite the pressures of the global recession, many companies are active involved in activities to
lessen the impact of the financial crisis on the needy in society.
35. Sent on a tradingmission to Japan in 1653, Hendrik Hamel, a bookkeeper for the Dutch East India
Company, was shipwrecked on an island near from Korea.
36. Indonesia has been known as the Spice Islands ever since spices brought to Europe and changed the
taste buds of Europeans forever.
37. The broad-tailed hummingbird nests on the lowest branch of an aspen tree as it provides a good view of
approaching predators, a clear flight path, and protect for its young.
38. In his speech at the annual convention of the political party, the chairman did an emotional appeal for
funds to help rebuild the region struck by the earthquake.
39. Because of there are rarely any outward symptoms of high blood pressure, it is important to have one’s
blood pressure checked regularly.
40. Poland is quickly emerging as one of the few bright spots in a recession-torn Europe hit hard by
the economics crisis.
A B C
A B C
A B C
A B C
VOCABULARYAND READING COMPREHENSION
Directions: In this section you will read several passages. Each passage is followed by questions about
it. Choose the one best answer, (A), (B), (C), or (D), for each question. Then, on your answer sheet, find
the number of the question and fill in the oval that corresponds to the letter of your answer choice.
Answer all questions based on what is stated or implied in the passage.
Read the following passage:
A new hearing device is now available for some hearing-impaired people. This device uses a
magnet to hold the detachable sound-processing portion in place. Like other aids, it converts sound
into vibrations. But it is unique in that it can transmit the vibrations directly to the magnet, and then
to the inner ear. This produces a clearer sound. The new device will not help all
hearing-impaired people, only those with a hearing loss caused by infection or some other problem
in the middle ear. It will probably help no more than 20 percent of all people with hearing problems.
Those people, however, who have persistent ear infections should find relief and restored hearing
with the new device.
What is the author’s main purpose?
(A) to describe a new cure for ear infections
(B) to inform the reader of a new device
(C) to urge doctors to use a new device
(D) to explain the use of a magnet
The author’s main purpose is to inform the reader of a new device for hearing-impaired people.
Therefore, you should choose answer (B).
The word “relief” in line 7 means
(A) less distress
The phrase “less distress” is similar in meaning to “relief” in this sentence. Therefore, you should choose
Now begin with the questions.
A B C D
A B C D
Questions 41 - 50
Magicians are, first and foremost, artists of attention and awareness. They manipulate the focus
and intensity of human attention, controlling, at any given instant, what we are aware of and what we
are not. They do so in part by employing bewildering combinations of visual illusions, optical illusions,
special effects, sleight of hand, secret devices andmechanical artifacts. But themost versatile
instrument in their bag of tricksmay be the ability to create cognitive illusions. Like visual illusions,
cognitive illusionsmask the perception of physical reality yet unlike visual illusions, cognitive illusions
are not sensory in nature. Rather they involve high-level functions such as attention, memory and
causal inference.With all those tools at their disposal, well-practicedmagiciansmake it virtually
impossible to follow the physics of what is actually happening—leaving the impression that the only
explanation for the events ismagic.
Neuroscientists are just beginning to catch up with themagician’s facility in manipulating
attention and cognition. Of course, the aims of neuroscience are different from those of magic; the
neuroscientist seeks to understand the brain and neuron underpinnings of cognitive functions,
whereas themagician wantsmainly to exploit cognitive weaknesses. Yet the techniques developed by
magicians over centuries of stagemagic could also be subtle and powerful probes in the hands of
neuroscientists, supplementing and perhaps expanding the instruments already in experimental use.
Neuroscience is becoming familiar with the methods of magic by subjecting magic itself to scientific
study—in some cases showing for the first time how some of its methods work in the brain.
Many studies of magic conducted so far confirm what is known about cognition and attention from
earlier work in experimental psychology. A cynicmight dismiss such efforts:Why do yet another
study that simply confirms what is already well known? But such criticism misses the importance and
purpose of the studies. By investigating the techniques of magic, neuroscientists can familiarize
themselves withmethods that they can adapt to their own purposes. Indeed, we believe that cognitive
neuroscience could have advanced faster had investigators probedmagicians’ intuition earlier. Even
today, magiciansmay have a few tricks up their sleeves that neuroscientists have not yet adopted.
By applying the tools of magic, neuroscientists can hope to learn how to design more robust
experiments and to createmore effective cognitive and visual illusions for exploring the neural bases
of attention and awareness. Such techniques could not only make experimental studies of cognition
possible with clever and highly attentive subjects; they could also lead to diagnostic and treatment
methods for patients suffering from specific cognitive deficits, such as attention deficits resulting from
brain trauma, Alzheimer’s disease, and the like. Themethods of magicmight also be put to work in
“tricking” patients to focus on the most important parts of their therapy, while suppressing distractions
that cause confusion and disorientation.
41. Which of the following is NOT a reason the
author callsmagicians “artists of attention and
(A) Magicians can control our awareness.
(B) Magicians can create illusions to trick us.
(C) Magicians canmake impossible things
(D) Magicians can combine various tricks to
manipulate our attention.
42. Which of the following does the author NOT
list as characteristic of visual and cognitive
(A) Visual illusions mask the perception of
(B) Visual illusions involve attention,memory
and causal inference.
(C) Cognitive illusions are unrelated to our
(D) Cognitive illusions are themost
sophisticated type of tricks created by
43. All of the following are instruments used by
magicians to create illusions EXCEPT
(A) human attention.
(B) optical illusions.
(C) special effects.
(D) skilful handmovements.
44. The term “versatile” in line 4 is closest in
45. It can be inferred from the passage that
(A) have been outsmarted by magicians in the
study of the brain.
(B) have similar aims as magicians in their
study of the brain.
(C) should borrowmagicians’methods to
study the brain.
(D) should learn to be magicians to better
study the brain.
46. According to the passage, themethods of
magic can help neuroscientists
(A) design better experiments.
(B) exploit cognitive weaknesses.
(C) enrich their instruments for understanding
(D) bemore familiar with the tools of magic.
47. The term “cynic” inline 20 is closest in
48. The word “their” in line 32 refers to
(D) magicians’ sleeves.
49. The main idea of the passage is
(A) neuroscience should adopt themethods
of magic to advance its own purpose.
(B) neuroscience should be familiar with the
methods of magic to prevent its
(C) neuroscience should be wary of the
interference of themethods of magic in
the study of the brain.
(D) neuroscience should incorporatemagic as
parts of its discipline.
50. All of the following are given in the passage as
ways in which the tools of magic can be useful
to neuroscientists EXCEPT
(A) They help neuroscientists design better
(B) They help neuroscientists create
confusion and disorientation to trick
(C) They help neuroscientists find better
diagnostic and treatment methods.
(D) They help neuroscientists keep their
patients’ focus on the important
aspects of therapy.
Questions 51 - 60
To appreciate just how distinctive bats are, consider one of their trademark traits: wings. A few
mammals, such as flying squirrels, can glide from tree to tree, thanks to a flap of skin that connects
their front and hind limbs. And in fact, experts generally agree that bats probably evolved from an
arboreal, gliding ancestor. But amongmammals, bats alone are capable of powered flight, which is a
muchmore complex affair than gliding. They owe this ability to the construction of their wings. The
bones of a bat’s wings consist of greatly elongated forearm and finger bones that support and spread
the thin, elastic wing membranes. Themembranes extend backward to encompass hind limbs that
are quite a bit smaller than those of a terrestrial mammal of comparable body size. Many bats also
have a tail membrane between their hind legs.
Most bats can also echolocate. By producing high-pitched sounds and then analyzing the
returning echoes, these nocturnal animals can detect obstacles and prey much better than by using
vision alone. More than 85 percent of living bat species use echolocation to navigate. The rest belong
to a single family—the OldWorld fruit bats, sometimes called flying foxes, which apparently lost the
ability and instead rely strictly on sight and smell to find the fruit and flowers they feed on. Echolocating
bats have a distinctive set of anatomical, neurological and behavioral characteristics that
enable them to send and receive high-frequency sounds.
The revelation more than 60 years ago that most of the world’s bats can “see with sound”made
clear that echolocation contributes significantly to the great evolutionary success and diversity of
bats. But which of the two key bat adaptations—flight and echolocation—came first, and how and why
did they evolve? The flight-first hypothesis holds that bat ancestors evolved powered flight as a way of
improvingmobility and reducing the amount of time and energy required for foraging. Under this
scenario, echolocation evolved subsequently tomake it easier for early bats to detect and track prey
that they were already chasing in flight.
In contrast, the echolocation-first model proposes that gliding protobats hunted aerial prey from
their perches in the trees using echolocation, which evolved to help them track their quarry a greater
distances. Powered flight evolved later to increasemaneuverability and to simplify returning to the
hunting perch. The tandem-development hypothesis, for its part, suggests that flight and echolocation
evolved simultaneously. This idea is based on experimental evidence showing that it is energetically
very costly for bats to produce echolocation calls when they are stationary. During flight, however, the
cost becomes nearly negligible because contraction of the flight muscles helps to pump the lungs,
producing the airflow that is required for intense, high-frequency vocalizations.
The only way to test these hypotheses about the origins of flight and echolocation is by mapping
the distribution of relevant traits—wings and enlarged cochlea in the skull, for example—onto a family
tree of bats to determine the point at which they evolved. Back in the 1990s, we simply did not have
any fossils of bats that had some of these signature characteristics but not others. Just about the
only way a bat can become fossilized is if it dies in a place where it is swiftly covered with sediment
that protects it from scavengers andmicroorganisms alike.
51. According to the passage which of the
following is NOT true about bats?
(A) Bats fly rather than glide like flying
(B) Bats detect prey and obstacles by
(C) Bats rely on sight and smell to find fruit
and flowers to eat.
(D) Bats are the only mammals with the
powered flight ability.
52. Bats are capable of powered flight because of
(A) their wings’ distinct construction.
(B) their ability to echolocate.
(C) their evolution from a gliding ancestor.
(D) their tail membrane located between their
53. The word “evolve” in line 20 could be best
54. The word “prey” in line 24 is closest in meaning
55. According to the passage, which of the two key
bat adaptations came first: flight or
(A) The passage does not provide sufficient
information about this.
(B) Flight evolved first, followed by
(C) Echolocation evolved first, followed by
(D) Both evolved simultaneously.
56. It can be inferred from the passage that
scientists who study bats
(A) are sure that bats’ ability to fly predates
their ability to echolocate.
(B) did not find out that bats can fly until 6o
(C) are not sure that bats really have the
capability to echolocate.
(D) still wonder if bats’ ability to fly and
echolocate came simultaneously.
57. The word “them” in line 25 refers to
58. Which of the following best expresses the
oppositemeaning of the term “negligible” in
59. According to the passage, fossils of bats are
(A) they help us determine the origin of bats.
(B) they help us test the three hypotheses
(C) they protect bats from scavengers and
(D) they providemaps of the distribution of
60. The word “they” in line 34 refers to
Questions 61 - 70
More than five and a half years into the IraqWar, the condition of archaeological sites and
antiquities in Iraq remains a frustrating and contentious topic among archaeologists and art historians.
Two surveys in the past year—one in northern Iraq inMay, the other in the south in June—have
persuaded some that the ongoing damage is far less extensive thanmost observers had believed. Yet
withmore than 10,000 registered sites and numerous othermounds of earth that may still conceal
uncatalogued treasures from the “cradle of civilizations”,many archaeologists question whether
the surveyed sites are representative of conditions elsewhere. There has been no comprehensive
survey done to establish with certainty exactly what percentage of the 10,000 registered sites has
been looted. Military satellite imagery would enable analysts to tell us the whole truth, but the military
has not been willing to share it.
The report of theMay survey, conducted by U.S. and Iraqi investigators, state that none of the
sites showed signs of looting or extensive vandalism. Likewise, the June report, by a team of Iraqi and
British archaeologists who visited eight sites in the south, found little evidence of looting since the war
began. Nevertheless, the report of the Iraqi-British project cautioned that it is difficult and dangerous to
generalize from the conditions of the sites the group visited. One big anomaly in both surveys was the
prevalence of guards, which should deter looting. But guards at most archaeological sites in Iraq are a
rarity. Part of the problem is that although there is a mobile force of 1,500 Iraqi guards with trucks for
patrolling the sites, nobody has put up any budget line in for fuel.
Scholars and analysts must therefore base their estimates on satellite data from commercial
sources, on eyewitness accounts and on what is being recovered by police and custom officials. The
good news is that a trade embargo and the threat of stiff legal sanctions seem to have dried up the
market for looted artifacts. Not all the damage to Iraq’s ancient heritage is the fault of looters. At two
sites—Tell al-Lahm and Ubaid—military command posts had been established at the top of the site,
according to one of the reports. Shelters for vehicles (tanks and armored personnel carriers) had been
created by cutting into the ancient mounds. The construction has presumably dug away previously
undisturbed archaeological deposits. At the site of Babylon, military activities have removed areas of
surfacemounds totaling six hectares, or more than 13 football fields—to fill sandbags, carve trenches
and bulldoze earth for parking lots.
In the view of art historian Zainab Bahrani, an Iraqi-born scholar at Columbia University, no serious
assessment of the damage will be possible until the U.S. occupation ends.What has become clear
to Bahrani, however, is that the looting of the Iraqi National Museum and of archaeological sites is
only the tip of the iceberg—just part of a large-scale historical and cultural destruction of archives,
libraries and universities, as well asmembers of the scholarly community. “Somany people have died
and become homeless and been forced into exile”, she says, “that it becomes difficult for me to focus
on cultural heritage alone.”
61. The main subject of the passage is
(A) war as the primary cause of the looting
and damage of Iraqi archaeological sites.
(B) the difficulty of assessing the extent of
damage of Iraqi archaeological sites.
(C) the lack of effort to prevent the damage
of Iraqi archaeological sites.
(D) the relationship between poverty and the
looting of archaeological sites in Iraq.
62. The term “cradle of civilizations” in line 6 refers
(A) uncatalogued treasures.
(C) archaeological sites.
63. The word “it” in line 10 refers to
(A) the military.
(B) the whole truth.
(C) the survey.
(D) satellite imagery.
64. All of the following are given in the passage as
factors that have caused damage to the
archaeological sites in Iraq EXCEPT
(A) the prolonged war in Iraq.
(B) the reluctance of themilitary to share
(C) the setup of military posts on archaeological
(D) the lack of priority given to the protection of
65. With which of the following statements would
the author probably agree?
(A) The military is solely responsible for the
extensive damage and looting of most of
the archaeological sites in Iraq.
(B) The trade embargo has helped perpetuate
the looting of artifacts inmany of the
archaeological sites in Iraq.
(C) Only the end of the U.S. occupation can
bring an end to the looting of
archaeological sites and artifacts in Iraq.
(D) Stiffer legal sanctionsmay help prevent
further looting and damage of
archaeological sites in Iraq.
66. The word “undisturbed” in line 26 could be best
67. The author’s attitude toward the problem of the
looting and damage of archaeological sites in Iraq
68. The passage implies that nowadays in Iraq
(A) art historians are striving to save
(B) the survival of archaeological sites and
artifacts depends entirely on themilitary.
(C) nothing can be done to save the
uncatalogued treasures and sites.
(D) very fewpeople care about saving
69. The author quotes Zainab Bahrani in the last
(A) she is an Iraqi descendant although she was
born in the U.S.
(B) she is an art historian familiar with the culture
(C) she is a renowned scholar from a prestigious
(D) she is very concerned about the deteriorating
situation in Iraq.
70. The paragraph that follows the last paragraphmost
likely deals with
(A) suggestion of steps that need to be taken
to save the sites.
(B) description of how war and poverty worsen
(C) prediction of what might further happen to
(D) description of artifacts that have been looted
from the sites.
Questions 71 - 80
Criminals, like their victims, come in all varieties. But researchers have found that they don’t
choose their victims randomly. There’s a reason criminal investigators begin their investigations by
creating profiles of victims. It’s because the identity of victims—particularly if there are several victims
with differing characteristics—helps investigators determine whether a criminal is targeting a specific
kind of person or choosing victims opportunistically. In the field of victimology, one of the central
concepts is that of the ‘risk continuum”—there are degrees of risk for a type of crime based on your
career, lifestyle, relationships, movements, and even personality, aspects of which are clearly seen
from your behavior and attitude. Some factors that make people potential victims are obvious—
flashing wads of cash, wearing expensive jewelry, walking alone on back streets. Others are subtler,
including posture, walking style, even the ability to read facial expressions.
The cues add up to the term “exploitability”. David Buss, a psychologist at the University of
Texas, is examining a catalogue of traits that seem to invite some people to exploit others. There’s
cheatability, sexual exploitability, as well as robability, killability, stalkability, and even sexual
assaultability. As adaptations for exploitation evolved, so did defenses to prevent being exploited—
wariness toward strangers, cheater-detection sensitivities, and possibly anti-rape defenses. These
defenses, in turn, created selection pressure for additional adaptations for exploitation designed to
circumvent victim defenses.
Nowhere does victimology imply that people who stand out as easy targets are to blame for
becoming victims. Predators bear sole responsibility for the crimes they commit—and should be held
accountable and punished accordingly. Moreover, many attacks are random, and no amount of
vigilance could deter them.Whether victims are selected randomly or targeted because of specific
characteristics, they bear no responsibility for crimes against them. But by being aware of which
cues criminals look for, we can reduce the risk of becoming targets ourselves.
In a classic study, researchers Betty Grayson and Morris Stein asked convicted criminals to
view a video of pedestrians walking down a busy NewYork sidewalk, unaware that they were being
taped. The convicts had been to prison for violent offenses such as armed robbery, rape, andmurder.
Within a few seconds, the convicts identified which pedestrians they would have been likely to target.
What startled the researchers was that there was a clear consensus among the criminals about
whom they would have picked as victims—and their choices were not based on gender, race, or age.
Some petite, physically slight women were not selected as potential victims, while some large men
The researchers realized the criminals were assessing the ease with which they could overpower
the targets based on several non-verbal signals—posture, body language, pace of walking, length of
stride, and awareness of environment. Neither criminals nor victims were consciously aware of these
cues. They are what psychologists call “precipitators”, personal attributes that increase a person’s
likelihood of being criminally victimized.
71. Which of the following does the author NOT list
as a factor that makes people potential victims
72. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that criminals
(A) choose their victims based on certain
(B) choose people who look physically weak.
(C) choose only people who are rich and
(D) choose people who do not go along well with
73. The term “opportunistically” in line 5 is closest
74. According to the passage, victimology
(A) blames people who become victims of
crimes for their misfortunes.
(B) studies the best ways to exploit people and
make them easy targets.
(C) believes that criminals are entirely
responsible for the crimes they commit.
(D) punishes criminals for the crimes they
75. The word “them” in line 22 refers to
(A) specific characteristics.
76. The term “startled” in line 28 is closest in
77. The researchers showed a video of
pedestrians walking on a busy New York
sidewalk to convicts in order to
(A) help the convicts identify potential
(B) expose the pedestrians to danger.
(C) give the convicts a chance to commit
(D) find out how criminals choose their
78. The following are the findings the researchers
obtained from their study EXCEPT
(A) victims are not chosen based on their
(B) victims are not chosen based on whether
they look weak or strong.
(C) victims are not chosen based on their
sensitivity to the surroundings.
(D) victims are not chosen based on how old
79. According to the passage, we can reduce the
risk of becoming crime victims by taking the
following precautions EXCEPT
(A) refrain from wearing valuable rings,
bracelets, or necklaces when in public.
(B) equip ourselves with self-defense skills or
tools to protect ourselves.
(C) bemore responsible for our behavior when
(D) bemore aware of the surroundings we are
80. Which of the following questions about
victimology does the passage NOT supply
enough information to answer?
(A) Why do potential victims of crimes behave
the way they do?
(B) What aspects do criminals take into
account when picking out their victims?
(C) Why is being alert of our environment
important in protecting ourselves
(D) What non-verbal signals transmitted by
potential victims attract criminals?
Questions 81 - 90
The history of independent Indonesia after 1950 is a story of the failure of successive groups to
meet the expectations of democracy generated by the successful struggle for independence. Already
by 1957 the democratic experiment had collapsed. A historian of the country reported that corruption
was widespread, the territorial unity of the nation was threatened, social justice had not been
achieved, economic problems had not been solved, and the expectations generated by the Revolution
Between 1957and 1965, Sukarno, installed in 1950 as the first president of independent
Indonesia, instituted the so-called nation-building Guided Democracy project. Central to Sukarno’s
policies of these years was the reconstruction of Jakarta to demonstrate the regime’s commitment to
a form of national discipline and the need to attract international recognition. Sukarno’s urban projects
have been characterized by some scholars as representative of the competitive international order of
the time. Several studies have considered the built form of the transformed capital city as an attempt
by Sukarno to foster a national unity and identity for the Indonesian people. Themodern part of
Jakarta was intended to raise the self-esteem of the Indonesian people after a long period of
As leader of Jakarta during the time of Guided Democracy, Sukarno decided to display in the city
his version of what was to be embodied, celebrated, remembered and forgotten. Jakarta is positioned
in relation to a homogenous time and space and compared to the glories, not the despairs, of other
cities—Cairo, Rome, Paris and Brasilia. Sukarnomade it clear that the Indonesian revolution was just
one of many revolutions in human history. Its uniqueness demanded international recognition. Jakarta,
like other cities throughout the world, had to convey an image of a center with its traces of
decolonization and signs being parallel to other world cities. In 1960, soon after Jakarta was declared
“Daerah Khusus Ibukota”, Sukarno started his nation-building project to put Jakarta on the map of
At the center of the 900,000 squaremeter grass-covered field, left over by the Dutch colonial
regime, he first erected the National Monument, naming the site Independence Square. The whole
square complex and the new large thoroughfare running southward were soon to become themain
landmarks of his nation-building project. It was not by chance that the city’s first priority was to host
the 4th Asian Games in 1962 and, a year later, the first Games of the New Emerging Forces
(GANEFO). It was clear that for Sukarno the Games has a ceremonial function. They could project a
future in which Jakarta, in the eyes of neighboring nations, could be seen as the beacon of the new
emerging forces of Asia. The spectacular events were represented with the six-lane thoroughfare from
Independence Square, passing south through a series of newly built highrise office buildings, Hotel
Indonesia, the Sarinah Department Store, the Semanggi Bridge, to the Asian Games Complex and
the Convention Hall in Senayan, all in the form of amodernist urban environment.
81. Which of the following is NOT suggested by
(A) The country was on the verge of
(B) The struggle to free the country from
oppression had failed.
(C) The gap between the rich and the poor
(D) The people suffered from severe economic
82. The term “Revolution” in line 5 refers to
(A) democratic experiment.
(B) widespread corruption.
(C) struggle for independence.
(D) threat to national unity.
83. The year 1950 is an important year in the
history of Indonesia because
(A) the expectations of democracy were
fulfilled in that year.
(B) Sukarno was appointed President in that
(C) the period of Guided Democracy began in
(D) the young nation became politically
united in that year.
84. The word “considered” in line 12 is closest in
85. The following are the goals of Sukarno’s
transformation of Jakarta EXCEPT
(A) Jakarta as proof of the existence of
democracy in Indonesia.
(B) Jakarta as a symbol of national unity and
(C) Jakarta as amanifestation of national
(D) Jakarta as ameans for Indonesia to gain
86. The author mentions Cairo, Rome, Paris and
Brasilia in paragraph 3 in order to
(A) show that Jakarta was far left behind by
other world cities in terms of
(B) show that Jakarta had surpassed those
cities as the site of good governance.
(C) show Sukarno’s ambition tomake Jakarta
on par with other world cities.
(D) showthat Jakarta earned international
recognition as a world city like the
87. The word “convey” in line 21 is closest in
88. According to the passage, Sukarno began his
nation-building project by
(A) declaring Jakarta a “special capital region”
(B) hosting the 4th Asian Games in 1962.
(C) building the National Monument in 1960.
(D) hosting the first GANEFO in 1963.
89. Which of the following best expresses the
author’s attitude toward the topic?
90. According to the author, Hotel Indonesia, the
Sarinah Department Store, the Semanggi
Bridge and the Senayan Convention Hall were
all built by Sukarno in order to
(A) demonstrate that Indonesia is part of the
(B) build a city appropriate for hosting the 4th
(C) gain the respect of the developing
(D) serve as important landmarks of the
emerging nations in South East Asia.
Questions 91 - 100
Whilemost Indonesians recognize that the women of Muhammadiyah and NU undertake all
types of social, educational, andmedical activities, the fact that many of them are also involved in
rereading the holy texts of Islam has been largely overlooked. Especially since the 1990s this has
become a formative activity for women who graduate from pesantren, or Islamic universities.When we
try to find comparable activities in theMuslim world, we cannot simply look at women in other
countries doing similar exercises; wemust also distinguish their study according to their frame of
reference, whether reformist or traditionalist.
Comparablematerial for reformist interpretation comes from male and femaleMuslim feminists in
the U.S. Following the reformist methodology, they rely directly on the Qur’an and Hadith. The
Egyptian Muslim scholar Muhammad Abduh started to interpret those sources using the method of
ijtihad. His reformist method of interpreting the holy sources was continued and elaborated by his
student, Rashid Rida. Rida wasmore conservative thanAbduh and eventually influenced the reformist
movement in Indonesiamore than his teacher. Abduh bypassed the traditional Fiqh sources and
placed Qur’anic verses about women’s comprehensive veiling, seclusion, polygyny, and unilateral
divorce rights of the husband in their original social and cultural context. He argued that since those
contexts had changed, themodern application of the texts had to be adapted as well. The men and
women of Muhammadiyah used this reformist frame.
To gain knowledge of the Fiqh requires decades of deep study in special schools, few of which
are open to female students. But because of the pesantren network connected to NU, Indonesia is
one of the few countries where considerable numbers of women have this specific knowledge. Finding
a comparative frame for the feminist interpretations of the traditionalist NU scholars was therefore a
challenge. Traditionalist Muslims connected to NU started to address problematic issues regarding
women’s status during the 1980s, but they always have included reference to the Fiqh texts. It
remains exceptional that in Indonesian Islam, reformist Muhammadiyah and traditionalist NU women
are participating in reinterpreting women’s lives and rights. Muhammadiyah women did this nearly
from the start of their movement in 1917, gradually becoming well versed in Islamic learning. NU
women started later, by the 1950s.
It is interesting that in the early years of the 21st century NU interpretations concerning women
have becomemore progressive than the reformist interpretations. These processes largely developed
within the archipelago, seldom drawing the attention of Muslim and non-Muslim scholars from outside
Indonesia another point of interest is that while the rest of theMuslim world reconsiders themerits of
reformist or traditionalist interpretations, in Indonesia the twomodes have come to borrow each
other’s methods. Traditionalists now include references to secular sources such as philosophy,
sociology, and economics, while reformist are returning to a deeper study of the Fiqh sources.
91. The main idea of the passage is
(A) Muslim women in Indonesia are not as
advanced as their counterparts in the
U.S. in their involvement in rereading the
Qur’an and the Hadith.
(B) The traditionalist viewof theQur’an and the
Fiqh in Indonesia ismore dominant than
the reformist view.
(C) NowadaysMuslim women in Indonesia can
no longer be simply and rigidly grouped
into reformists and traditionalists.
(D) The problem that Muslim women in
Indonesia have to address is the ongoing
92. The word “elaborated” in line 11 is closest in
93. According to the passage, U.S.Muslim feminists
are different from Indonesian Muslim woman
(A) in the U.S. Muslim feminists are
(B) U.S. Muslim feminists are followers of
(C) U.S. Muslim feminists use Rashid Rida’s
(D) U.S.Muslim feminists have amoremodern
view of Islam.
94. The word “unilateral” in line 14 could be best
95. The word “their” in line 15 refers to
(B) Qur’anic verses.
(C) traditional Fiqh verses.
(D) unilateral divorce rights of the husband.
96. Why is the author of the opinion that Muslim
women in Indonesia are more knowledgeable in
Islamic teaching than women in many other
(A) BecauseMuslim women in Indonesia are
activemembers of twomajor Islamic
organizations, Muhammadiyah and .N.U.
(B) Because IndonesianMuslim women not only
have knowledge of theQur’an and the
Hadith but also of the Fiqh.
(C) BecauseMuslim women in Indonesia have
been actively involved in rereading the holy
texts since the first half of the twentieth
(D) Because IndonesianMuslim women attend
pesantren and Islamic universities.
97. The word “they” in line 23 refers to
(A) feminist interpretations.
(B) problematic issues.
(C) traditionalist Muslims.
(D) Fiqh texts.
98. Which of the following is what Muslim scholars
outside Indonesia tend to overlook in their
studies of IndonesianMuslim women in the new
(A) many IndonesianMuslim women are
involved in rereading Islamic texts.
(B) in rereading the holy texts, Muslim women
in Indonesia havemore than one frame
(C) N.U. women aremore progressive than
Muhammadiyah women in their
interpretations of the holy texts
(D) Muhammadiyah women startedmuch
earlier in rereading Islamic texts than
99. According to the passage, which is NOT true
about IndonesianMuslim women’s involvement
in rereading the holy texts?
(A) They borrow each other’smethods of
(B) They are sharply divided into reformist and
(C) They are concerned with the application of
the texts to women’s issues.
(D) They do not undergo the same processes
as Muslim women in other parts of the
100.The passage would probably be part of an
assigned reading in which of the following
(A) Introduction to Islamic Studies
(B) History of Islam in Indonesia
(C) Women’smovements in Indonesia
(D) Introduction toWomen’s Studies